Photobucket ☛ The Nervous System ☚



The Nervous System is like a phone operator of the body. It connects one part of the body to the brain and back by nerve cells called neurons. The purpose of the nervous system is for our body to be able to communicate response signals to our brain. We use these response reactions when we hold cold things or touch hot stoves. The nerves in our skin shoot a message to the brain of pain and the brain sends a message back to pull away. Your Nervous System, which consists of your brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves and autonomic nerves, controls all movements and thoughts you may have.

By - Diana Diaz

Our Nervous System:

  • Controls voluntary movements

  • Controls and regulates involuntary functions

  • Communicates information between brain, spinal cord, and other tissues.

  • Senses inner and outer surroundings


Structure and Functions

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In vertebrates, The Nervous System has two parts: the central and peripheral nervous systems. The central nervous system consists of the brain and spiral cord. Linked to those are the cranial, spinal, and autonomic nerves. These nerves branch off and make up the peripheral nervous system.
  • Brain- replies to nerve signals with a demand on how to handle a situation.
  • Spinal cord- The spinal cord plays a huge role in sending messages back and forth from the brain and the body. The spine contains threadlike nerves that branch out to every organ and body part.
  • Peripheral nerves (or just nerves)- A closed, cable-like group of peripheral axons that is only found in the peripheral nervous system. They connect your spinal cord to your limbs.
  • Neural tracts- connects one part of the central nervous system to another, and usually contains bundles of white matter.Typically, tracts are used to connect far areas from the brain and nerves.
  • Cranial nerves- unlike spinal nerves, cranial nerves come directly from the brain, connecting your sense organs.
  • Central nerves- connect areas within the brain and spinal cord.
  • Spinal nerves- carries motor, sensory, and autonomic signals between the spinal cord and the body.
  • Autonomic nerves- acts as control system, functioning under consciousness. Also, it is in charge of visceral functions.

Enzymes and Hormones

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Neurons, or nerve cells, are vast across the body, sending information throughout the body as messengers for the brain and nerves. The components of the neuron are: axons, dendrites, and myelin sheath.
  • Axon- takes in electrical impulses away from neuron's soma. (not in all neurons)
  • Dendrites- takes in electrochemical stimulation from other nuerons to the cell body.
  • Myelin Sheath- essential for proper functioning of the nervous system, formed around the axon of a neuron.

Regulation

Autonomic nervous system- through processes and autonomic regulation, proper regulation is maintained in the body.

Communication

Our neurons, that act as messengers, send information to the brain, followed by the brain sending information back. The entire nervous system is based on communication from neuron cells and the brain. Here's a video to explain how.







Sources:
http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0859926.html
http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/life/human-biology/nerve.htm
http://psychology.about.com/od/biopsychology/ss/neuronanat_5.htm
http://www.brighthub.com/science/genetics/articles/31563.aspx